On Wednesday 7 November 2012 at the Denton Rooms, Marlow Methodist Church Allan Wilson visited AIM to give a talk on Roman Archaeology in South Bucks. Allan has tutored courses in archaeology, is an expert on Roman Archaeology and has written a book recently on Roman and Native in Scotland. He said that this talk would be his personal perspective on the subject, as a great deal of excavations had either not been published or the finds lost, so not all may agree with his thoughts.
Allan explained he would look at the Iron Age, the Roman Military Advance, Communications, Urbanisation and the Rural Economy including Roman villas in the area.
He firstly defined the territory of the Catuvellauni in which South Bucks lay. Their territory was bounded by the Rivers, Lea, Nene, Cherwell and Thames. The capital of this large area was Verulamium (St Albans) and there were other towns in their area, e.g. Towcester and Water Newton, and nearby was Silchester, the capital of the neighbouring Atrebates.
He showed us slides and talked of various Iron Age hillforts including Ivinghoe Beacon, Cheddington, Boddington Hill, Pulpit Hill, and Dyke Hills and mentioned that as recently as this summer it was reported that a Claudian Roman fort had been found in London.
He then showed slides of Roman roads and possible Roman roads and discussed these and mentioned that in Henley, at an excavation in Bell Street, Roman levels had been found. He also mentioned a report in Records of Bucks in 1970 that suggested that there was a Roman road near the line of the A40 running from Uxbridge to West Wycombe and beyond.
Allan had drawn outlines of some of the Roman Villas he would then discuss, Latimer, High Wycombe, Saunderton Lee, Saunderton, Yewdon, Mill End, Cox Green and Harpsden
Latimer had 3 periods of Roman, 4 post Roman and 5 modern periods of occupation. At Sarratt, Chess Valley Archaeological Society had done extensive field walking.
The villa at Little Missenden has been taken sufficiently seriously for the HS2 to be rerouted because of it. When the Amersham Bypass was created, there were many finds from the sizeable villa at Shardloes, Mantles Green and Old Amersham.
With regard to Marlow, Allan said that 2 Roman figurines were found in 1870 and it was also reported that tiles and wall plaster of 1 – 4th Cen. AD were found. It has been suggested that there might be a shrine at Marlow but without further information he couldn’t really comment.
The next villa he mentioned was The Rye at High Wycombe, saying there was controversy here. There were references to a fortress at Holywell Mead following finds made there between 1722 and 1724 but although a villa, bathhouse and other buildings have been identified, Allan said there is no evidence of a fortress. He said that there is a just published report which identifies parch marks which could indicate another villa on the site.
He then came on to the areas along the Saunderton gap and the Chilterns including Little Kimble which has been excavated but no reports published. At Hambledon, the original excavation report on Yewden Villa mentions 70 styli, 40 corn dryers and 97 infant burials. Peter Salway suggested it may have been the site of a rural female slave trade. At Mill End there were 4 periods of occupation. Bix had been excavated but not published and at Harpsden, excavations showed a small winged villa built in the 3rd Cen. AD, part of which is underneath the 16th hole of Henley Golf Course
Allan also touched on Romano British cemeteries, the most important being at West Wycombe, alongside the A40. Apparently when the lakes were drained on the West Wycombe estate more material was found.
Our thanks to Allan for an interesting and informative talk.
by Ann Pitwell